A cozy, laconic, elegant Brest attracts tourists at any time of the year. All speak one voice about the "European", "western" of this city, are surprised by its cleanliness and laconic rigor of the streets. Residents of megacities especially adore the abundance of greenery in the heart of Brest, as well as a large number of attractions of different levels. But can this only boast the city over the Bug?
At historical crossroads
Despite its modernity, Brest is an ancient city. Older than him in Belarus only Polotsk and Turov. For the first time he is mentioned in the "Tale of Bygone Years" in 1019. Then the future regional center was a large, well-fortified settlement. The people who lived here were called bastians.
There are several legends about the origin of the name of the city. According to one of them, the rich merchant and his comrades decided to go to Lithuania, sell their goods. With great difficulty, he moved on until he reached the impenetrable swamp. It seemed that they were judged here and stopped: the wheels of the wagons were bogged down in a swampy mire, the horses did not want to go forward. Then the merchant ordered to break the birches and cover the top with birch decking. On it, the train went on. After seeing a small river, the travelers decided to rest. We inspected the area and saw that in the distance a small river flows into a wider river and forms an island with it. On this island, they decided to build a temple - to thank the god Veles for helping them on the road. After that they moved on. They returned the same way - happy with a successful bourse. Near the shrines they made a halt and decided to stay here for a long time. We built several buildings. But they well remembered that very difficult transition on the marshy swamp, so the city decided to call Berestye.
According to another version, I bought a money, lost in swamps, the Mother of God, who showed him the way. In this direction, his servant began to make a ditch, carpeting the swamp berem (the local name for the elm). The merchant was so grateful for his salvation that he left the marshes and built a church. Over time, people began to settle around her, a settlement was formed. Then it turned into a free castle town.
Many times Brest changed his name. At first he was mentioned in the annals as Berestiy, and the inhabitants called him Berest. In the XVII-early XX century, the city began to be called Brest-Litovsk, then - Brest-nad Bug. And only in September. In 1939 he became Brest.
The ancient origin of the city was confirmed by an amazing discovery by archaeologists: on the cape, which formed the Western Bug and Mukhavets, an ancient settlement of ancient Brest was discovered. Detinets triangular shape, the area of which was about 1 hectare, was strengthened by a moat, earthen rampart and palisade. Whole streets were excavated, paved with logs - more than 200 houses and outbuildings. Archaeologists have concluded that Detinets originated at the turn of the 10th-11th centuries. Now everyone can see it, since the Archeological Museum "Berestye" was created on its territory.
By the end of the XI century Berestye was already a trading center and fortress on the border with Polish and Lithuanian lands. Favorable situation complicated the life of the city, led to numerous attacks. In 1020 the Polish prince Boleslav the Brave conquered the city, and more than twenty years it took to return it to the Kiev principality. In the second half of the 12th century Berestye belonged to the Vladimir-Volyn principality. They built a wooden castle and began to take a duty (washing) for the transportation of goods. In addition, trade is actively developing and handicraft.
XIII-XIV centuries were difficult for the city: the attacks of the Mongol-Tatars and crusaders forced to seek new ways to protect the city. There is a tower-dungeon, the same as in Kamenets. It was intended for defense and served more than 5 centuries, until in 1831 was destroyed during the construction of the Brest Fortress.
The city was reborn very quickly after many raids - the rich, developed. The first guest yard is united here, they were successfully engaged in pottery, blacksmithing, sewing, jewelery craft. At a high level were woodworking, spinning and weaving.
Backbone law - in 1390. The status of the city in the list of 15 major cities of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. "Beresteans union, which linked the two churches - Catholic and Orthodox.
The decline of the city began with the fall of the Commonwealth: frequent wars weakened the city, and exorbitant taxes only aggravated this situation. After the third partition of Rzeczpospolita, Brest-Litovsk became part of Russia. To strengthen the western borders of the state, at the end of the XVIII century on the site of the old city they decided to erect a military fortress. The construction of the fortress in Brest-Litovsk began only in the XIX century, after the war of 1812. In 1842, a flag was raised over the fortress.
The city developed and built.