The history of development of Minsk:
Minsk is the city with a fairly ancient history. The first mention of the city dates back to 1067. That year on the Nemiga river there was a bloody battle when the forces of the prince of Kievan Rus' defeated the forces of Polatsk princedom. This battle is described in the Old Russian epic "The Tale of Igor's Campaign". Most likely, the name of the city comes from the river Menka (Menya), which was a tributary of the Nemiga. Hydronym Menya can be explained as originating from Proto-Indo-European root of the "men" - "small", including in Lithuanian - "menkas" (small). Old Russian versions of the name - "Men'sk", "Menesk", "Mensk" are found in the annals. In 1084 Minsk was once again subjected to rout. The destruction of the city was carried out by Vladimir Monomakh in revenge to the same Vseslav Bryachislavich for burning Smolensk. At the very beginning of the XII century, the Minsk Principality was separated from the Polotsk principality. Minsk became its "stolny" city, the center of the Minsk Principality, which included the lands of the basins of the rivers Svisloch, Druti and Berezina. In the XIV century Minsk was in the possession of princes from the house of Gedimin, and Grand Prince Jagiello gave it to his brother Skirgail.
In 1413, when compiling the Gorodel Act of the accession VKL to Poland, Minsk was designated as the main city of the most extensive Minsk province. In 1441 the Grand Duke of Lithuania Kazimierz Jagellonchik included the city in the number of cities that enjoyed special privileges. And in 1499, Minsk, on behalf of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, was granted self-government, the so-called "Magdeburg law".
In the XV century, the buildings of the Trinity and Rakovsky hills were mainly formed. Around the city were built fortresses - moats and earthen ramparts. At the beginning of the XVI century a new city center was established in the Upper Market area (now Svobody Square), where a wooden two-storey town hall was built. The architectural appearance of the city was determined by the streets adjoining the Upper and Trinity markets, houses built by feudal lords, merchants, rich artisans, monasteries with churches - Kozmodemyansky, Voznesensky, Petropavlovsk, Svyatodukhovsky male and female monasteries, and Franciscan churches. Under Empress Catherine II, Minsk, like the whole Belarus, was annexed to Russia.
In 1812 the city was captured by the French, Marshal Davout stayed here, a military hospital was established. Since January 1, 1919, Minsk - the capital of the BSSR, since 1922 in the Soviet Union. In 1974, it was awarded the title Hero City, to commemorate the merits of its inhabitants in the fight against fascism during the Second World War. At present, the executive committee of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the government and the parliament of the Republic of Belarus is located in Minsk.
The economic activity of Minsk:
Minsk is the largest industrial center of the Republic of Belarus. The specialization of the city in the economic system of the republic is determined by such spheres as: industry, construction, science and scientific services. Minsk enterprises produce more than one-fifth of the republic's industrial output. About 60 percent of the products produced in the city are exported outside the republic. The main export items are tractors, trucks, metalworking machines, household refrigerators and freezers, televisions, motorcycles and bicycles. Such factories as «Atlant», «Integral», «Minsk Tractor Plant», MAZ, «Horizont» and others work here. The goods with the Minsk mark are exported to more than 100 countries of the world. Minsk is the largest center of science and technology in Belarus. There are 164 scientific research institutions, including the National Academy of Sciences.
The transport communications in Minsk:
Minsk has a well-developed network of public transport and is the largest transport hub of the country. It is located at the intersection of transport corridors connecting Russia with Poland and Ukraine with the Baltics. The railway station of Minsk is one of the largest in Europe. It works round the clock and offers a wide range of services. In addition, 19 railway stations operate in the city. Intercity bus service in Minsk is provided by the bus stations "Vostochny", "Moskovsky", "Avtozavodskaya", "Yugo-Zapadnaya". The city is served by two airports - Minsk-1 and Minsk National Airport (42 km from the city), which are operated by 18 airlines. At present, 240 routes of land municipal public transport, including 169 buses, 64 trolleybus and 7 tramways, provide transportation services to residents and visitors of the city. Minsk is the only city in Belarus with a metro. Two lines of the Minsk Metro, 30.316 km long, carry 49 electric trains (220 wagons); 1245 flights are performed per day.
The tourist potential of Minsk:
Minsk is the largest tourist center of the republic. The most valuable architectural and artistic monuments of Minsk are the civil and religious buildings of the XVII-XIX centuries. Most of them are located in the historically developed areas of the Upper City District. The most attractive for tourists are the Trinity Hill, the City Hall, the Holy Spirit Cathedral, the Island of Courage and Sorrow, the National Library, the Church of St.Simeon and Helena, etc. There are 2 tourist zones in the city: the "Historical Center of Minsk" and " Loshitsky manor and park complex ". Minsk is known for its cultural component. There are 16 museums, including the National Art Museum, the Museum of History and Culture of Belarus, the Museum of the History of the Great Patriotic War. 11 theaters, including the State Russian Drama and Belarusian Academic Theaters, the National Theater of Opera and Ballet. In addition, the city has 20 cinemas. Much attention is paid to the development of sports: Minsk-Arena, the Palace of Sports, the Ice Palace, the Republican Tennis Center, the football arena, which annually host sports competitions of various levels, concerts and festivals. There were created parks for rest and recreation: Gorky Central Park, Chelyuskintsev Park, Victory Park, Yanka Kupala and others.
The city has developed more than 40 pedestrian, bicycle and bus excursion routes with visits to historical and cultural heritage sites, museums, theaters, exhibition galleries and others. The most popular excursions are the sightseeing tour "Minsk - the capital of the Republic of Belarus", "Minsk evening", "Minsk ancient and modern", "Temples of the city of Minsk", "Minsk sports". 27 hotels can offer their services to accommodate tourists and guests of the city. Health services are provided by the Rehabilitation and Balneotherapy Medical Center.