Braslav was founded in the early XI century on the state of the settlement of Latgal and Krivichi existed since the IX century. Performed the role of a defensive point on the north-west coast Polotsk principality. The origin of name is connected with a name of Polotsk Prince Brjachislav Izyaslavich, in which were built the Braslav strengthening. The city developed on a narrow isthmus between the lakes stretched from East to West, which protected the city from the North, South and West, and the river Druyka from the East. The first houses were grouped around the hire (14 metres) of a steep mountain, where was a castle. Since the beginning of XIV century was high possession. In the XIV Prince Gedimin bequeathed century to younger son Eunot. During the performance of Svidrigayla his troops in the Braslav joined with the forces of the Livonian order (1434) and the Tatar cavalry (1435) — allies of Svidrigayla in combat with Sigismund Kestutavich.
On October 8, 1500, Grand Duke Alexander during his stay in Braslav gave the incomplete Magdeburg law, which was several times confirmed. The emblem of "the Eye of foreknowledge" (symbolic portrayal of the human eye in the triangle on the background of sunlight), the city received on June 2, 1792 at the behest of Stanislav August. After Alexander's death (1506) the owner of the city became his wife Elena, the daughter of the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III. It was founded on the Castle hill women's Orthodox monastery, where he died in 1513 (buried in Vilna).
According to the census of 1554, in the town there 5 streets, approximately 100 houses, barracks, chapel, Church, temple, market, hospital, 40 booths, the estate of princes Mosalsky who have purchased Sapieha castle and part of the city.
In the second half of XVII—XVIII centuries the city was badly damaged during the numerous military operations, was several times completely destroyed. The decision of the Warsaw Sejm of 1661 exempt for 4 years from all taxes. On May 11, 1794 on the streets of Braslav were fighting between the rebels, supporters of T. Kosciuszko, and king’s troops, causing the city burned. After the third partition of Poland in 1795 the city became part of the Russian Empire. In the Patriotic war of 1812 in Braslav 9 days was the headquarters of Marshal M. Neya. Since 1843, the town of Braslav — place Novoaleksandrovskaya district, Kovno province. In 1864 the painter and archeologist D. Struikovym made by 14 drawings devoted to the historical places of Braslav and the surrounding area. Sketches of Braslava did in the late 1870s N. Horde. In 1913 in Braslav 1 550 inhabitants, a hospital, rural school, distillery. In early 1919, Braslav is the center of the district (February 1919 — district) of the Lithuanian SSR, then the Lithuanian-Byelorussian SSR. Since 1922 — in Poland, centre County Vilnius province. From 1939 Braslav in structure of BSSR. During the Great Patriotic war in the Nazi-occupied city acted anti-fascist underground.
Braslav is the center of the district since 1940. Today the city is home for 10 thousand people. The industrial production in the area involved 7 companies. It: production Republican unitary peat enterprise "Braslavskoe", JSC "Braslav flax" and "Braslav dairy plant", bakery, food factory, sewing company "Dubrava — Braslav".
Archaeological monument is the castle hill. Preserved monuments of architecture: water well tent, St. Nicholas Church, the Church (the end XIX century). Works Braslav local history Museum. On the shore of the lake Drivayty— a monument of landscape art, one of the largest parks on a regular basis-landscape-plan in Belarus. In the district there are monuments of architecture: Trinity Church (1914), the Church (1910), the manor house with a park (the end of XVIII — the beginning XIX century) in the town of Vidzy, Stanislavsky Church (first half of XX C.) in the village Dalekie, Peter and Paul Church (1929), the Church (1908) in the village Drisvyaty, St. Nicholas Church (1905) in the village Ikazn, Pokrovskaya Church (the beginning of XX century) in the village Minkovichi, Church of the Mother of God of angels (beginning of XX C.) in the village Mezhany, the Church (early XX century) in the village Opsa, Heart of Jesus Church (1903) in the village Slobodka, water mill with decorative walls resolved (the end of XVIII — 1st half of XIX century) — the only one remaining in the Braslav district of the monuments of folk art of this type — in the village Zarache.
Braslav is a blue expanse of large and small lakes (in the area about 300, and they account for 10% of its area). Given the uniqueness of the region and for its preservation, in 1995, was created the national Park "Braslav lakes". Becoming increasingly a network of tourism.